Monday, August 2, 2010

Disney Land

This article is about the original park in Anaheim, California. For other uses, see Disneyland (disambiguation).

Disneyland Disney theme park

Disneyland Park is an amusement park located in Anaheim, California, owned and operated by the Walt Disney Parks and Resorts division of The Walt Disney Company. Originally, and still often colloquially, called Disneyland, it was dedicated with a televised press preview on July 17, 1955, and opened to the general public on July 18, 1955. Disneyland holds the distinction of being the only theme park to be designed and built under the direct supervision of Walt Disney himself. In 1998, the theme park was re-branded "Disneyland Park" to distinguish it from the larger Disneyland Resort complex.

Disneyland has the most cumulative attendance of any theme park in the world, with close to 600 million guests since July 18, 1955. In 2009, 15.9 million people visited the park making it the second most visited park in the World during that


"To all who come to this happy place: -Welcome- Disneyland is your land. Here age relives fond memories of the past ... and here youth may savor the challenge and promise of the future. Disneyland is dedicated to the ideals, the dreams, and the hard facts that have created America ... with the hope that it will be a source of joy and inspiration to all the world."

—Walter E. Disney, July 17, 1955 4:43pm[2]

[edit] History

[edit] Concept and construction

Sleeping Beauty Castle during the Happiest Homecoming on Earth.The concept for Disneyland began one Sunday, when Walt Disney was visiting Griffith Park with his daughters Diane and Sharon. While watching his daughters ride the Merry-Go-Round, he came up with the idea of a place where adults and their children could go and have fun together. His dream would lie dormant for many years.[3] Walt Disney also may have been influenced by his father's memories of the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago (his father had worked at the Exposition). The Midway Plaisance there included a set of attractions representing various countries from around the world and others representing various time periods of man; it also included many rides including the first Ferris wheel, a "sky" ride, a passenger train that circled the perimeter, and a Wild West Show. Although the 1893 World's Fair was held across one summer in Chicago, the Disneyland of 60 years later bears some striking resemblances to it.

While many people had written letters to Walt Disney about visiting the Disney Studio, he realized that a functional movie studio had little to offer to the visiting fans. This began to foster ideas of building a site near his Burbank studios for tourists to visit. His ideas then evolved to a small play park with a boat ride and other themed areas. Walt's initial concept, his "Mickey Mouse Park", started with an 8 acres (0.012 sq mi; 0.032 km2) plot across Riverside Drive. Walt started to visit other parks for inspiration and ideas, including Tivoli Gardens, Greenfield Village, The Efteling, Tilburg , Playland, and Children's Fairyland. He started his designers working on concepts, but these would grow into a project much larger than could be contained in 8 acres (32,000 m2).[4]

Walt hired a consultant, Harrison Price from Stanford Research Institute, to gauge the proper area to locate the theme park based on the area's potential growth. With the report from Price, Disney acquired 160 acres (0.250 sq mi; 0.647 km2) of orange groves and walnut trees in Anaheim, southeast of Los Angeles in neighboring Orange County.[4][5]

Difficulties in obtaining funding prompted Disney to investigate new methods of fundraising. He decided to use television to get the ideas into people's homes, and so he created a show named Disneyland which was broadcast on the then-fledgling ABC television network. In return, the network agreed to help finance the new park. For the first five years of its operation, Disneyland was owned by Disneyland, Inc., which was jointly owned by Walt Disney Productions, Walt Disney, Western Publishing and ABC.[6] In 1960 Walt Disney Productions purchased ABC's share (it had earlier bought out Western Publishing and Walt Disney). In addition, many of the shops on Main Street, U.S.A. were owned and operated by other companies who rented space from Disney.

Construction began on July 16, 1954 and would cost USD$ 17 million to complete, and was opened exactly one year and one day later.[7] U.S. Route 101 (later Interstate 5) was under construction at the same time just to the north of the site; in preparation for the traffic which Disneyland was expected to bring, two more lanes were added to the freeway even before the park was finished.[5]

[edit] July, 1955: Dedication Day and Opening Day

An aerial view of Disneyland in 1956. The entire route of the Disneyland Railroad is clearly visible as it encircles the park.Disneyland Park was opened to the public on July 18, 1955 with only 20 attractions. However, a special "International Press Preview" event was held on Sunday, July 17, 1955, which was only open to invited guests and the media. The Special Sunday events, including the dedication, were televised nationwide and anchored by three of Walt Disney's friends from Hollywood: Art Linkletter, Bob Cummings, and Ronald Reagan. ABC broadcast the event live on its network; at the time, it was one of the largest and most complex live broadcasts ever.

The event did not go smoothly. The park was overcrowded as the by-invitation-only affair was plagued with counterfeit tickets. Only 11,000 people were expected to show up, but a staggering 28,154 was the eventual population. Movie stars and other famous figures scheduled to come every two hours showed up all at once. All major roads nearby were empty. The temperature was an unusually high 101 °F (38 °C), and a plumbers' strike left many of the park's drinking fountains dry. Disney was given a choice of having working fountains or running toilets and he chose the latter.

This, however, generated negative publicity since Pepsi sponsored the park's opening; disappointed guests believed the inoperable fountains were a cynical way to sell soda. The asphalt that had been poured just that morning was so soft that ladies' high-heeled shoes sank into it. Vendors ran out of food. A gas leak in Fantasyland caused Adventureland, Frontierland, and Fantasyland to close for the afternoon. Some parents were seen throwing their children over the shoulders of crowds to get them onto rides such as the King Arthur Carrousel.[8]

The park got such bad press for the "International Press Preview" that Walt Disney invited attendees back for a private "second day" to experience Disneyland properly. In later years Walt and his 1955 executives referred to July 17, 1955 as "Black Sunday". Today, cast members wear pin badges on July 17 in celebration of the park's anniversary, stating how many years it has been since the 1955 opening. But for the first decade or so, Disney officially stated that opening day was on July 18, 1955 and celebrated the 18th as its Anniversary. For example, a 1967 Disneyland press release referred to July 17, 1955, as "Dedication Day" and not "Opening Day."

On Opening Day, Monday July 18, crowds started to gather in line as early as 2 a.m., and the first person to buy a ticket and enter the park was David MacPherson with admission ticket number 2, as Roy O. Disney arranged to pre-purchase ticket number 1 from Curtis Lineberry, the manager of admissions. Walt Disney had an official photo taken with two children, Christine Vess Watkins (age 5 in 1955) and Michael Schwartner (age 7 in 1955); the photo of the three carries an inaccurate caption identifying the children as the first two guests of Disneyland. Watkins and Schwartner both received lifetime passes to Disneyland that day, and MacPherson was awarded one shortly thereafter, which was later expanded to every single Disney-owned park in the world. Approximately 50,000 guests attended the Monday Opening day.

[edit] The early years

In September 1959, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev spent thirteen days in the United States. On his visit Khrushchev had two requests: to visit Disneyland and to meet John Wayne, Hollywood's top box-office draw. Due to the Cold War tension and security concerns, he was famously denied an excursion to Disneyland.[9]

[edit] 1990s transition: Park becomes Resort

Disney's California AdventureIn the late 1990s, work began to expand on the one-park, one-hotel property. Disneyland Park, the Disneyland Hotel and the site of the original parking lot as well as acquired surrounding properties were earmarked to become part of a greater vacation resort development. The new components of this resort were to be another theme park, Disney's California Adventure Park; a shopping, dining and entertainment complex, Downtown Disney; a remodeled Disneyland Hotel; Disney's Grand Californian Hotel; and the acquisition of the Pan Pacific Hotel (later to be remodeled and renamed Disney's Paradise Pier Hotel). Because the existing parking lot (south of Disneyland) was built upon by these projects, the six-level 10,250 space "Mickey and Friends" parking structure was constructed in the northwest corner of the property, at the time of its completion in 2000, it was the largest parking structure in the United States.[10]

Downtown DisneyThe park's management team during the mid-1990s was a source of controversy among Disneyland fans and employees. In an effort to boost profits, various changes began by then-executives Cynthia Harriss and Paul Pressler. While their actions provided a short-term increase in shareholder returns, they drew widespread criticism from employees and guests alike for the lack of foresight. With the retail background of Harriss and Pressler, Disneyland's focus gradually shifted from attractions to merchandising. Outside consultants McKinsey & Co were also brought in to help streamline operations, which resulted in many changes and cutbacks. After nearly a decade of deferred maintenance, Walt Disney's original theme park was showing visible signs of neglect. Fans of the park decried the perceived decline in customer value and park quality and rallied for the dismissal of the management team.[citation needed]

[edit] Disneyland in the 21st Century

Plaque at the entranceMatt Ouimet, formerly the president of the Disney Cruise Line, was promoted to assume leadership of the Disneyland Resort in late 2003. Shortly afterward, he selected Greg Emmer as Senior Vice President of Operations. Emmer is a long-time Disney cast member who had worked at Disneyland in his youth prior to moving to Florida and holding multiple executive leadership positions at the Walt Disney World Resort. Ouimet quickly set about reversing certain trends, especially with regards to cosmetic maintenance and a return to the original infrastructure maintenance schedule, in hopes of restoring the safety record of the past. Much like Walt Disney himself, Ouimet and Emmer could often be seen walking the park during business hours with members of their respective staff. They wore cast member name badges, stood in line for attractions and welcomed comments from guests.

With more than 5,000 gallons of paint in the PD, 100,000 lights altogether, millions of plants, 400 million guests to enter the park so far, Matt Ouimet announced that he would be leaving The Walt Disney Company to become president of Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide in July 2006. Soon after this announcement, Ed Grier, executive managing director of Walt Disney Attractions Japan, was named president of the Disneyland Resort. Greg Emmer retired from his job on February 8, 2008. In October 2009, Ed Grier announced his retirement, and was replaced by George Kalogridis as the new President of the Disneyland Resort.

[edit] 50th Anniversary

Main article: Happiest Homecoming on Earth

While Disneyland had sold many autograph books and foods, the Happiest Homecoming on Earth was happening. The eighteen-month-long celebration (held through 2005 and 2006) of the fiftieth anniversary of the Disneyland theme park, which opened on July 18, 1955. The Happiest Celebration on Earth commemorated fifty years of Disney theme parks, and celebrated Disneyland's milestone throughout Disney parks all over the globe. In 2004, the park undertook a number of major renovation projects in preparation for its fiftieth anniversary celebration.

Many classic attractions were restored, notably Space Mountain, Jungle Cruise, the Haunted Mansion, Pirates of the Caribbean, and Walt Disney's Enchanted Tiki Room, also Attractions that had been in the park on opening day in 1955 had one ride vehicle painted Gold, and there were Golden Mickey Ears throughout the Park. The 50th Anniversary celebration started on May 5, 2005 (To play on the 5-5-05 date) and ended on September 30, 2006 to be replaced by the Disney Parks "Year of a Million Dreams" celebration, which actually lasted 27 months and ended on December 31, 2008.

[edit] 55th Anniversary

Starting on the 1st of January, 2010, Disney Parks hosted the Give a Day, Get a Disney Day volunteer program in which Disney encouraged people of all ages to volunteer with a participating Disney Charity and receive a free Disney Day at either the Disneyland Resort in California or the Walt Disney World Resort in Florida. On March 9, 2010, Disney announced that it has reached its goal of one million volunteers and ended the promotion to anyone who had not yet registered and signed up for a specific volunteer situation.

[edit] Park layout

Aerial view of Disneyland in 1963, looking southeast. The Santa Ana Freeway (I-5) is in the upper left corner. Harbor Boulevard forms the eastern boundary of the park. Anaheim's newly completed Melodyland Theater ("theater-in-the-round"), at the top of the photo.

May, 1965 aerial photo of Disneyland and surrounding Anaheim area. Includes Disneyland Hotel with its Monorail Station, the Disneyland Heliport, orange groves, Santa Ana Freeway and Melodyland Theater.The park is divided into realms, which radiate like the four cardinal points of the compass from Central Plaza, and well-concealed backstage areas. On entering a realm, a guest is completely immersed in the environment and is unable to see or hear any other realm. The idea behind this was to develop theatrical "stages" with seamless passages from one land to the next.[4] The public areas occupy approximately 85 acres (0.133 sq mi; 0.344 km2). When the park initially opened, it consisted of five themed areas:

Main Street, U.S.A., an early 20th century Midwest town based on Walt Disney's childhood

Adventureland, featuring jungle-themed adventures

Frontierland, illustrating western frontier

Fantasyland, bringing fantasy into a reality

Tomorrowland, looking into the future.

Since the initial opening, additional areas have been added:

In 1957, Holidayland, a 9 acres (0.014 sq mi; 0.036 km2) recreation area including a circus and baseball diamond, which was closed in late 1961.

In 1966, New Orleans Square, based on 19th century New Orleans

In 1972, "Bear Country", themed to the mountain forests of the South. It was later renamed Critter Country and themed around Splash Mountain's Song of the South elements.

In 1993, Mickey's Toontown, themed around the Toontown seen in the film Who Framed Roger Rabbit

Throughout the park are 'Hidden Mickeys', or representations of Mickey Mouse that are in odd places.

An elevated berm supports a narrow gauge railroad which circumnavigates the park. Disney's California Adventure Park was added in what used to be a Disneyland parking lot.

[edit] Lands of Disneyland

Main articles: List of current Disneyland attractions and List of past Disneyland attractions

There 8 themed lands that hold a host to shops, restaurants, live entertainment, and attractions that differ from each other.

[edit] Main Street, U.S.A.

Main article: Main Street, U.S.A.

Main Street USA as seen on July 4, 2010.Main Street, U.S.A. is patterned after a typical Midwest town of the early 20th century. Walt Disney derived inspiration from his boyhood town of Marceline, Missouri and worked closely with designers and architects to develop the Main Street appeal. It is the first area guests see when they enter the park (if not entering by monorail), and is how guests reach Central Plaza. At the center of The Magic Kingdom and immediately North of Central Plaza stands Sleeping Beauty Castle, which provides entrance to Fantasyland by way of a drawbridge across a moat. Adventureland, Frontierland, and Tomorrowland are arrayed on both sides of the castle.

“ For those of us who remember the carefree time it recreates, Main Street will bring back happy memories. For younger visitors, it is an adventure in turning back the calendar to the days of grandfather's youth. ”

— Walt E. Disney

Main Street, U.S.A. is reminiscent of the Victorian period of America with the train station, town square, movie theater, city hall, firehouse complete with a steam-powered pump engine, emporium, shops, arcades, double-decker bus, horse-drawn streetcar, jitneys and other bits of memorabilia. Main Street is also home to the Disney Art Gallery and the Opera House which showcases Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln a show featuring an autonomatronic version of the president. There are many specialty stores on Main Street including: a candy store, jewelry and watch shop, a silhouette station, a store that sells Disney collectable items created by various artists, and a hat shop where you have the option of creating your own ear hat along with a personalized embrodiery. At the far end of Main Street, U.S.A. is Sleeping Beauty Castle, and the Central Plaza (also known as the Hub), which is a portal to most of the themed lands. While the Central Plaza was key when the park opened, many lands are not directly connected to the Central Plaza currently, namely, New Orleans Square, Critter Country and Toontown.

The design of Main Street, U.S.A. utilizes a process to give the appearance of height called forced perspective, frequently used in movies. Buildings down Main Street are built at 3/4 scale on the first level, then 5/8 on the second story, and 1/2 scale on the third—reducing the scale by 1/8 each level up. Main Street U.S.A. has the most lights of any land. That's 11,000/100,000 lights total.

[edit] Adventureland

Main article: Adventureland

Adventureland provides a 1950s view of adventure, capitalizing on the post-war Tiki craze.Adventureland is designed to be an exotic tropical place in a far-off region of the world. "To create a land that would make this dream reality", said Walt Disney, "we pictured ourselves far from civilization, in the remote jungles of Asia and Africa." Attractions include opening day's Jungle Cruise, the "Temple of the Forbidden Eye" in Indiana Jones Adventure, and Tarzan's Treehouse, which is a conversion of the earlier Swiss Family Robinson Tree House from the Walt Disney film, Swiss Family Robinson. Walt Disney's Enchanted Tiki Room which is located at the entrance to Adventureland is the first feature attraction to employ Audio-Animatronics, a computer synchronization of sound and robotics.

[edit] New Orleans Square

Main article: New Orleans Square

The Haunted Mansion is patterned after a Southern plantation home.New Orleans Square is a themed land based on 19th century New Orleans. It was opened to the public on July 24, 1966. Despite its age, it is still very popular with Disneyland guests, being home some of the park's most popular attractions: Pirates of the Caribbean and the Haunted Mansion, including nighttime entertainment in Fantasmic!. Also included are Mark Twain's River boat, the Sailing Ship Colombia, and Pirate's lair on Tom Sawyer's Island. The above mentioned attractions are sometimes mistakenly placed as Frontierland attractions.

[edit] Frontierland

Main article: Frontierland

Big Thunder Mountain Railroad.

This file is a candidate for speedy deletion. It may be deleted after seven days from the date of nomination.Frontierland recreates the setting of pioneer days along the American frontier. According to Walt Disney, "All of us have cause to be proud of our country's history, shaped by the pioneering spirit of our forefathers. Our adventures are designed to give you the feeling of having lived, even for a short while, during our country's pioneer days." Frontierland is home to the Pinewood Indians band of animatronic Native Americans, who live on the banks of the Rivers of America. Entertainment and attractions include Big Thunder Mountain Railroad, Frontierland Shootin' Exposition Frontierland is also home to the Golden Horseshoe Saloon, a show palace straight out of the Old West. Currently the comedic troupe "Billy Hill and the Hillbillies" entertain guests.

[edit] Critter Country

Main article: Critter Country

Splash Mountain is a combination log flume and dark ride attraction at three Walt Disney Parks, based on the 1946 Disney film Song of the South.Critter Country opened in 1972 as "Bear Country", and was renamed in 1988. Formerly the area was home to Indian Village where actual indigenous tribespeople demonstrated their dances and other customs. Today, the main draw of the area is Splash Mountain, a log-flume journey inspired by the Uncle Remus stories of Joel Chandler Harris and the animated segments of Disney's Academy Award-winning 1946 film, Song of the South. In 2003, a dark ride called The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh replaced the Country Bear Jamboree, which closed in 2001. The Country Bear Jamboree presented shows featuring singing bear characters that were visualized through Disney's electronically controlled and mechanically animated puppets, known as Audio-Animatronics.

[edit] Fantasyland

Main article: Fantasyland

The entrance to the ride, "It's a Small World".Fantasyland is the area of Disneyland which Walt Disney said, "What youngster has not dreamed of flying with Peter Pan over moonlit London, or tumbling into Alice's nonsensical Wonderland? In Fantasyland, these classic stories of everyone's youth have become realities for youngsters – of all ages – to participate in." Fantasyland was originally styled in a medieval European fairground fashion, but its 1983 refurbishment turned it into a Bavarian village. Attractions include several dark rides, the King Arthur Carrousel, and various children's rides.

Before the fireworks begin, some attractions in Fantasyland close at approximately 8:30 on nights that fireworks shoot off at 9:25. The inside of Sleeping Beauty's Castle is a walk through attraction that was previously opened from 1959 to 1972 but after being hidden for years this darkride walkthrough of the story of Sleeping Beauty. The walkthrough is now reopened and it features the restored work of Eyvind Earle (not Mary Blair) . The dioramas have been made in to 3D to capture new ages. Fantasyland has the most fiber optics in the park because more than half of them are in Peter Pan's Flight. There are 350 total.

[edit] Mickey's Toontown

Main article: Mickey's Toontown

Mickey's Toontown.Mickey's Toontown opened in 1993 and was partly inspired by the fictional Los Angeles suburb of Toontown in The Walt Disney Studios' 1988 release Who Framed Roger Rabbit. Mickey's Toontown is a 1930s cartoon come-to-life and is home to Disney's most popular cartoon characters. Toontown features two main attractions: Gadget's Go Coaster and Roger Rabbit's Car Toon Spin. The "city" is also home to cartoon character's houses such as the house of Mickey Mouse, Minnie Mouse and Goofy.

[edit] Tomorrowland

Main article: Tomorrowland

Tomorrowland after its 1998 refurbishmentDuring the 1955 inauguration Walt Disney dedicated Tomorrowland with these words: "Tomorrow can be a wonderful age. Our scientists today are opening the doors of the Space Age to achievements that will benefit our children and generations to come. The Tomorrowland attractions have been designed to give you an opportunity to participate in adventures that are a living blueprint of our future." Disneyland producer Ward Kimball had rocket scientists Wernher von Braun, Willy Ley, and Heinz Haber serve as technical consultants during the original design of Tomorrowland.[11] Initial attractions included Rocket to the Moon, Astro-Jets and Autopia; later, the first incarnation of the Submarine Voyage was added. The area underwent a major transformation in 1967 to become New Tomorrowland, and then again in 1998 when its focus was changed to present a "retro-future" theme reminiscent of the illustrations of Jules Verne.

Current attractions include Space Mountain, Innoventions, Star Tours, Captain EO Tribute, Autopia, the Disneyland Monorail Tomorrowland Station, the Astro Orbitor and Buzz Lightyear Astro Blasters. Finding Nemo Submarine Voyage opened on June 11, 2007, resurrecting the original Submarine Voyage which closed in 1998.

[edit] Theatrical terminology

Disneyland staff use theatrical terminology. This is to emphasize that a visit to the park is intended to be similar to witnessing a performance. For example, visitors are referred to as Guests and park employees as Cast Members. On Stage refers to any area of the Resort that is open to Guests. Backstage refers to any area of the Resort that is closed to Guests. A crowd is referred to as an "audience." Costume is the attire that Cast Members who perform the day-to-day operations of the park must wear. Terms such as uniform are not used. Show is the Resort's presentation to its Guests, such as the color and façades of buildings, placement of rides & attractions, costumes to match the themed lands. When signing credit card receipts for souvenirs or food, Guests are asked for their autograph. "Stage Managers" are responsible for overseeing the operation of the different areas of the park. Cast Members who are in charge of a specific team are called "Leads," as in a film or theater "Lead Role." In the earlier years of the park, the offices where administrative work took place were referred to as "Production Offices." "Production Schedulers" build employee work schedules to meet the necessary workload, while "Stage Schedulers" handle day-to-day changes in that work schedule (such as a change in park hours, necessitating a change in everybody's shifts).

Each Cast Member's job is called a "Role." When working in their roles, Cast Members must follow a "Script." This is not a traditional play script, but more of a strict code of conduct and approved, themed phraseology that Cast Members may use when at work. Park employees were often reminded that "no" and "I don't know" are not a part of a Cast Member's script.

[edit] Backstage

Backstage areas include closed areas of attraction, store, and restaurant buildings, as well as outdoor service areas located behind such buildings. Although some areas of the park, particularly New Orleans Square, have underground operations and storage areas, there is no park-wide network of subterranean tunnels, such as Walt Disney World's utilidors.

There are several points of entry from outside the park to the backstage areas: Ball Gate (from Ball Road), T.D.A. Gate (adjacent to the Team Disney Anaheim building), Harbor Pointe (from Harbor Boulevard), and Winston Gate (from Disneyland Drive).

Berm Road encircles the park from Firehouse Gate (behind the Main Street Fire Station) to Egghouse Gate (adjacent to the Disneyland Opera House). The road is so called because it generally follows outside the path of Disneyland's berm. A stretch of the road, wedged between Tomorrowland and Harbor Boulevard, is called Schumacher Road. It has two narrow lanes and runs underneath the Monorail track. There are also two railroad bridges that cross Berm Road: one behind City Hall and the other behind Tomorrowland.

Major buildings backstage include the Frank Gehry-designed Team Disney Anaheim, where most of the division's administration currently works, as well as the Old Administration Building, behind Tomorrowland. The Old Administration Building additionally houses the Grand Canyon and Primeval World dioramas visible on the Disneyland Railroad.

The northwest corner of the park is home to most of the park's maintenance facilities, including:

Company vehicle services, including Parking Lot trams and Main Street Vehicles

Scrap yard, where the Resort's garbage and recyclables are sorted for collection

Circle D Corral, where the Resort's horses and other animals are stabled

Parade float storage and maintenance

Distribution center for all Resort merchandise

Ride vehicle service areas

Paint shop

Sign shop

Backstage also refers to parts of show buildings that are normally not seen by guests. Backstage areas are generally off-limits to park guests. This prevents guests from seeing the industrial areas that violate the "magic" of on-stage and keeps them safe from the potentially dangerous machinery. Cast members can also find some solace while they work or rest, as backstage offers alternate routes between the park's various areas.

Many attractions are housed in large, soundstage-like buildings, some of which are partially or completely disguised by external theming. Generally, these buildings are painted a dull green color in areas not seen by guests; ostensibly, this choice has been made to help disguise the buildings among the foliage and make them less visually obtrusive. Walt Disney Imagineering has termed this color, "Go Away Green." Most of them have off-white flat roofs that support HVAC units and footpaths for cast members. Inside are the rides, as well as hidden walkways, service areas, control rooms, and other behind-the-scenes operations.

Photography is forbidden in these areas, both inside and outside, although some photos have found their way to a variety of web sites. Guests who attempt to explore backstage are warned and often escorted from the property. The boundary between on and off-stage is demarcated at every access point. Everything within guest view when a door or gateway is open is also considered on stage. It is from this point, that characters start playing their part. That way, when the door is open, guests will not accidentally see a person out of character backstage.

Various amenities exist for Cast Members backstage when they are on breaks, or before and after their scheduled shifts. A number of cafeterias, now run by Sodexo, offer discounted meals throughout the day. These include Inn Between (behind the Plaza Inn), Eat Ticket (near the Team Disney Anaheim building behind Mickey's Toontown), and Westside Diner (located in a lower level beneath New Orleans Square). Partners Federal Credit Union, the credit union for employees of The Walt Disney Company in Orange County, provides nearly 20 ATMs backstage for cast member use and maintains an express branch at the Team Disney Anaheim building.

[edit] Transportation

Walt Disney had a longtime interest in transportation, and trains in particular. Disney's passion for the "iron horse" led to him building a miniature live steam backyard railroad—the "Carolwood Pacific Railroad"—on the grounds of his Holmby Hills estate. Throughout all the iterations of Disneyland during the seventeen or so years when Disney was conceiving it, one element remained constant: a train encircling the park.[3] The primary designer for the park transportation vehicles was Bob Gurr who gave himself the title of Director of Special Vehicle Design in 1954.

[edit] Disneyland Railroad

Disneyland Railroad Engine 2Main article: Disneyland Railroad

Encircling Disneyland and providing a grand circle tour is the Disneyland Railroad (DRR), a short-line railway consisting of five oil-fired and steam-powered locomotives, in addition to three passenger trains and one passenger-carrying freight train. Originally known as the Disneyland and Santa Fe Railroad, the DRR was presented by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway until 1974. From 1955 to 1974, the Santa Fe Rail Pass was able to be used in lieu of a Disneyland "D" coupon. With a three-foot gauge, the most common narrow gauge measurement used in North America, the track runs in a continuous loop around The Magic Kingdom through each of its realms. Each turn-of-the-19th-Century train departs Main Street Station on an excursion that includes scheduled station stops at: Frontierland Station; Toontown Depot, the gateway to Fantasyland; and, Tomorrowland Station. The Grand Circle Tour then concludes with a visit to the "Grand Canyon/Primeval World" dioramas before returning passengers to Main Street, U.S.A.

[edit] Disneyland Monorail System

The original red Mark I ALWEG Monorail train, with one car added, and then designated Mark II. Both trains were created especially for Disneyland. The other train was identical, but blue color. Seen at the Disneyland Hotel station, in August, 1963

The blue Mark II ALWEG Monorail train. Seen at the Disneyland Park station, in August, 1963Main article: Disneyland Monorail System

One of Disneyland's signature attractions is its monorail service, which opened in Tomorrowland in 1959 as the first daily-operating monorail train system in the Western Hemisphere. The monorail guideway has remained almost exactly the same since 1961, aside from small alterations while Indiana Jones Adventure was being built. Five generations of monorail trains have been used in the park, since their lightweight construction means they wear out quickly. The most recent operating generation, the Mark VII, was installed in 2008. The monorail shuttles visitors between two stations, one inside the park in Tomorrowland and one in Downtown Disney. It follows a 2.5 mile (4 km) long route designed to show the park from above. Currently, the Mark VII is running with the colors red, blue and orange.

Monorail Red travels over the Finding Nemo Submarine Voyage in Tomorrowland.The monorail was originally built with one station in Tomorrowland. Its track was extended and a second station opened at the Disneyland Hotel in 1961. With the creation of Downtown Disney in 2001, the new destination is Downtown Disney, instead of the Disneyland Hotel. The physical location of the monorail station did not change, however the original station building was demolished as part of the hotel downsizing, and the new station is now separated from the hotel by several Downtown Disney buildings, including ESPN Zone and the Rainforest Café.

[edit] Main Street vehicles

Main Street at Disneyland as seen from a Horseless Carriage.All vehicles that are found on Main Street were designed to accurately reflect turn-of-the-century vehicles, including a double-decker bus, a horse-drawn streetcar, a fire engine, and an automobile. They are available for one-way rides along Main Street, U.S.A. The horseless carriages are modeled after cars built in 1903. They are two-cylinder, four-horsepower (3 kW) engines with manual transmission and steering. Walt Disney used to drive the fire engine around the park before it opened, on most mornings. It has also been used to host celebrity guests and used in the parades.

[edit] Disneyland Helipad

A Los Angeles Airways S-61L helicopter lifting off from the Disneyland heliport, August, 1963, with the Matterhorn visible in the backgroundFrom the late 1950s to 1968 Los Angeles Airways provided regularly scheduled helicopter passenger service between Disneyland and Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) and other cities in the area. The helicopters initially operated from Anaheim/Disneyland Heliport, located behind Tomorrowland. Service later moved, in 1960, to a new heliport north of the Disneyland Hotel.[12] Arriving guests were transported to the Disneyland Hotel via tram. The service ended after two fatal crashes in 1968: The crash in Paramount, California, on May 22, 1968 killed 23 (the worst helicopter accident in aviation history at that time). The second crash in Compton, California on August 14, 1968, killed 21.[13]

[edit] Live entertainment

In addition to the attractions, Disneyland provides live entertainment throughout the park. Most of the mentioned entertainment is not offered daily, but only on selected days of the week, or selected periods of the year.

[edit] Characters

Many Disney characters can be found throughout the park, greeting visitors, interacting with children, and posing for photos. Some characters have specific areas where they are scheduled to appear, but can be found wandering as well. One reason Mickey's Toontown was created was so that there would be a place for Mickey Mouse to always be available to guests in his own house.

Periodically through recent decades (and most recently during the summers of 2005 and 2006), Mickey Mouse has climbed the Matterhorn attraction several times a day with the support of his friends Minnie, Goofy, and some Disneyland guests. Other mountain climbers could also be seen on the Matterhorn from time to time. As of March 2007, Mickey and his "toon" friends no longer climb the Matterhorn but the climbing program continues. Backstage, there are 500,000 total costume pieces

[edit] Daily ceremonies

Every evening at dusk, there is a military-style flag retreat to lower the Flag of the United States for the day, performed by a detail of the Disneyland Security Personnel. The ceremony usually is held between 4 and 5 PM depending on the entertainment being offered on Main Street, USA, currently the Street Event, "Celebrate!", to prevent conflicts with crowds and music. Disney does report the time the Flag Retreat is offered on its Times Guide that is offered at the Entrance Turnstiles and other locations.

[edit] The Disneyland Band

The Disneyland Band, which has been part of the park since its opening, plays the role of the Town Band on Main Street, U.S.A. It also breaks out into smaller groups like the Main Street Strawhatters, the Hook and Ladder Co., and the Pearly Band in Fantasyland.

[edit] Fantasmic!

Main article: Fantasmic!

Fantasmic! finale as seen on July 4, 2010.Fantasmic! which debuted in 1992, is a popular multimedia nighttime show on the Rivers of America. The star Mickey Mouse summons the characters and spirit of beloved Disney cartoons and uses the power of imagination to defeat the evil villains that try to turn his dream into a nightmare. The presentation is made at the Laffite's Tavern end of Pirate's Lair at Tom Sawyer Island and uses the Rivers of America as part of the stage. It uses Frontierland and New Orleans Square as the spectator arena.

It consists of synchronized lighting and special effects, with floating barges, the Mark Twain Riverboat, the Sailing Ship Columbia, fountains, lasers, fireworks, thirty-foot-tall "mist screens" upon which animated scenes are projected, and an automated forty-five foot fire-breathing dragon.

[edit] Fireworks

Disneyland Fireworks from Sleeping Beauty CastleElaborate fireworks shows synchronized with Disney songs and often have appearances from Tinker Bell or Dumbo, flying in the sky above Sleeping Beauty Castle. Since 2000, presentations have become more elaborate, featuring new pyrotechnics, launch techniques and story lines. In 2004, Disneyland introduced a new air launch pyrotechnics system, reducing ground level smoke and noise and decreasing negative environmental impacts. At the time the technology debuted, Disney announced it would donate the patents to a non-profit organization for use throughout the industry.[14]

Regular Fireworks Show:

1958–1999 Fantasy in the Sky

2000–2004 Believe... There's Magic in the Stars

2004–2005 Imagine... A Fantasy in the Sky

2005–2010 Remember... Dreams Come True

Special Fireworks Show:

June 12, 2009 – September 20, 2009 Magical: An Exploding Celebration In The Sky

September 25, 2009 – November 1, 2009 Halloween Screams

November 13, 2009 – January 3, 2010 Believe... In Holiday Magic

Since 2009, Disneyland has moved to a rotating repertoire of firework spectaculars.

Yearly Fireworks Repertoire

Winter – Spring Remember... Dreams Come True

Summer Magical: Disney's New Nighttime Spectacular of Magical Celebrations

Independence Day Week Disney's Celebrate America: A 4th of July Concert in the Sky

Halloweentime Halloween Screams

Holiday Believe... In Holiday Magic

During the Holiday Season, there is a special fireworks presentation called Believe... In Holiday Magic which has been running since 2000, except for a short hiatus in 2005 during the park's 50th Celebration.

Scheduling of fireworks shows depend on the time of year, during the slower off-season periods, the fireworks are only offered on weekends. During the busier times, Disney does offer additional nights, such as an extra night for a 3 day holiday. Also, Disney does offer Fireworks nightly during its busy periods, which includes Easter/Spring Break, Summer and Christmas time. The show is normally offered at 9:25 PM if the park is scheduled to close at 10 PM or later, but shows have started as early as 5:45 PM. Also, a major consideration is weather/winds, especially at higher elevations, which can force the cancellation of the show. Disney usually waits an additional time (15 minutes) to see if the winds die down. Shows, with a few minor exceptions, such as July 4 and New Year's Eve, must finish by 10 PM due to the conditions of the permit issued by the City of Anaheim.

[edit] The Golden Horseshoe Revue

The Golden Horseshoe Saloon offers a live stage show with a frontier or old-west feel. The Golden Horseshoe Revue is an old-west Vaudeville type of show starring Slue Foot (or Sluefoot) Sue and Pecos Bill. It ran until the mid-1980s, when it was replaced by a similar show starring Lily Langtree (or Miss Lily) and Sam the Bartender. Most recently, Billy Hill and the Hillbillies have played their guitars and banjos in a bluegrass-and-comedy show.

Additionally, in front of the Golden Horsehose Saloon, The Laughing Stock Co. enacts small humorous skits with an old-west theme.

[edit] Parades

Disneyland has traditionally had parades that have marched down Main Street. There were several daytime and nighttime parades that celebrate Disney films or seasonal holidays with characters, music, and large floats. One of the most popular parades was the Main Street Electrical Parade.

Debuting in May 5, 2005 as part of the Disneyland's 50th Anniversary, and running through November 7, 2008, Walt Disney's Parade of Dreams was presented, celebrating several of the classic Disney stories including The Lion King, The Little Mermaid, Alice in Wonderland, and Pinocchio. During the Christmas season, Disneyland presents "A Christmas Fantasy" Parade which celebrates the joy & wonder of the Christmas season.

In 2009, Walt Disney's Parade of Dreams was replaced by Celebrate! A Street Party, which premiered on March 27, 2009. Disney does not call Celebrate! A Street Party a parade, but rather a "street event."

On July 30, 2010, the Disney Parks Blog announced that a new parade, Mickey’s Soundsational Parade, would stomp, clang and drum its way to Disneyland in 2011.

Current Street Events:

Celebrate! – A Street Party (2009–Present)

Mickey’s Soundsational Parade (Coming 2011)

[edit] Tomorrowland Terrace

The Tomorrowland Terrace is a stage in Tomorrowland. It is a two-story stage where the lower stage rises from below with dramatic effect. It was popular in the 1960s with music performers of the day. Over the years, it was eventually replaced with Club Buzz, a Buzz Lightyear themed stage and show featuring the space character from the Toy Story movies. In 2006, it was restored to the Tomorrowland Terrace with the same style and design as the original. It is now home to the Jedi Training Academy interactive stage show where children are chosen as Jedi padawan and taught how to use a Lightsaber. Each child then has the opportunity to face Star Wars antagonists Darth Vader or Darth Maul. Recently, local bands have returned to play in the evenings, just as Tomorrowland Terrace hosted in the 1960s.

[edit] Other performers

Alice plays "Musical Chairs"Various other unscheduled street performers play and sing throughout the park, sometimes only seasonally, including:

The All-American College Band performs around the park. The band is composed of talented college students who audition for the chance to perform in Disneyland during the summer season;

Alice in Wonderland characters staging a wacky game of "Musical Chairs" either at "Coke Corner" or the porch of the Plaza Inn daily;

The Bootstrappers, a band of pirates that performs songs based on Pirates of the Caribbean, along with other sea-shanties;

The Dapper Dans barbershop quartet often sings on Main Street;

The Firehouse Five Plus Two, originally a band composed of Imagineers, can be found on Main Street;

The Main Street Piano Players play at Corner Cafe, also known as "Coke Corner" on Main Street;

The Trash Can Trio, a STOMP like group that performs using trash cans in Tomorrowland; and

Various bands in New Orleans Square, often with a jazz influence.

The Tomorrowland janitors perform during breaks (note that this is not Disneyland Day Custodial; these are Entertainment Cast Members).

Also, during the Holidays, many other smaller entertainment offerings are added, such as the Main Street Carolers who perform throughout the day.

How to Tell the Breed of a Cat

Often multiple bloodlines create problems with the right breed identification of an animal. Generally, cat owners who have adopted a stray, or owners who are unsure about the exact blood strain of their new kitty are at sea when it comes to determining their cat's breed. Proper breed identification is also necessary when you want to commercialize your cat-rearing practice or sell kittens. A few major tip off are in the form of certain conspicuous traits or visible markings that are particularly noticed in certain breeds. Dig up more information on how to identify or determine the breed of a cat.

How to Tell the Breed of a Cat

Weight variations in breed are strong determinants for their identification. So, record the weight of your kitty during birth and also when he grows into an adult cat. Take into consideration the gender of the animal while making calculations.

Next, take a note of the average height of the animal till the withers. Also measure the entire body length. The average height and weight of cats are also breed specific. Keep in mind that there are certain variations between the males and females of the same breed.

Next, feel the fur of your cat. Is it single or double layered? Certain breeds of cats have close lying single coats that are waxy and water resistant. While others may have a very thick, furry and protective coat with distinctive layers (double layered).

You can also measure the fur of the animal to distinguish the breed. The furs can be long (DLH- Domestic Long Hair)), medium (DMH- Domestic Medium Length Hair) or short (DSH- Domestic Short Hair). However, some breeds have both the long-haired and the short-haired versions.

Now carefully note the various markings, patterns and colors in the body of your cat. Determine if it is a tabby (marked with stripes, whorls and spots), calico (solid blocks of red, black and white), tortoiseshell (interweaving of red, black and white) or is plain solid colored.

Then, carefully note the shape and color of your cat's eyes. Normally, the outline of the eyes and the eye color/ various ranges of eye colors are specific to certain breeds. For e.g. Siamese have medium and almond-shaped eyes that slightly slant towards the nose. The eye color may range from ice to deep cobalt blue.

If you still fail to make out the breed of your cat, it is recommended that you consult a veterinarian. He might help in determining the exact species of the animal.

Homemade Cat Food

Cat food can be easily prepared at home if you have an idea about the nutritional requirement of your pet and one of our simple and healthy cat food recipes. Remember that the dietary requirement of a cat is quite different from any other pets, including dogs. If you also have a dog at home, don't feed your cat dog-food, as a cat requires five times more proteins than a dog. Moreover, never include ingredients like onions, pork, chocolates, bones, raw fish and raw eggs in your cat's diet. They are detrimental to the health of your pet. With so much danger lurking behind otherwise healthy food; it is always better to make cat food with some safe yardsticks. Here we provide you a few nutritious homemade cat food recipes which will help you to make your own cat food safely at home.

Breakfast Bites


1tbsp milk (non-fat and powder)

2 tbsp finely chopped carrot

2 tbsp finely chopped broccoli

2tbsp cottage cheese

3 eggs

2 tbsp corn oil


Take 3 tbsp of water and mix the milk to it. Add the eggs and finely blend the mixture. Now pour some corn oil onto a non-stick frying pan and add the mixture to it. Cook in a low flame (like an omelette). Toss it over and add the vegetables and fry the other side as well. Cut into tiny pieces and serve when cool.

Liver Magic


4 chicken livers

½ cup of cottage cheese

¼ cup biscuit mix

2 tbsp corn oil

Salt to taste


Boil the liver pieces in water till they are tender. Drain the water and finely chop the liver into small bite-pieces or chunks. Mix all the ingredients in a bowl. Add salt as required. Store the mixture in an airtight container in the refrigerator. Serve these nutritional bites to your kitty for his yummy dinner.

Cheesy Platter


½ cup grated cheese

A little oatmeal

2 tbsp yoghurt

2 tbsp margarine


Take the grated cheese in a bowl. Add the yoghurt and finely blend the mixture. You can also add sour cream instead of the yoghurt. Now add the oatmeal and the margarine and mash the entire paste. Store it in the refrigerator. You can give it to your cat as cold and healthy treats during any of his meals.

Scrumptious Dinner


1 egg

1 tbsp green beans (boiled and mashed)

1 tbsp finely chopped carrot

2 tbsp minced chicken breasts (no skin)

1/3 cup brown rice (coarse and cooked)

1 tbsp olive oil


Thoroughly mix all the ingredients and make a paste. You can also mash the mixture in a blender if required. Heat a non-stick frying pan and sauté the mixture in a low flame for 2-3 min. Let it stand and then refrigerate in air-tight containers or zip-lock bags. Serve the paste for a delectable kitty dinner within 36 hr.

How to Build a Cat House

Many cat-owners believe that domestic cats should have their own niche outdoors. Staying in close commune with nature fosters kitty's good health. But, the idea may seem dilemmatic at first. How safe will be your little friend when danger lurks outside in the form of predators, inclement weather, heavy traffic and other cats? Will he himself be a threat to little birds and rodents if let loose outdoors? These questions can be cracked, if you provide your kitty with a cozy feral shelter outdoors. Building a cat tree that can be placed on your garden or porch will provide your cat with all the benefits of outdoor living, without making him vulnerable to possible threats. Your kitty can use the cat tree to play, scratch, relax and nap. Learn how to go about building a cat tree/ cat house for your cat.

Tools Required


Miter Box &Saw

Screwdriver or Drill


Measuring Tape

Utility Knife


Materials Required

3 ft long lumber pieces (2"x4")

22"x25"x4" lumber piece (for the top)

24"x18"x4" lumber piece (for the bottom)

A square or rectangular box (with an open front)

3 rolls of sisal rope

4 ft of Quick-Tube building forms(12 inch diameter each)

Screws and Nails

Corner Brackets




Begin the process by carefully wrapping the sisal ropes in the lumber poles till about 2 ft. Nail properly to hold the ropes in place.

Cover the exposed areas of the poles with carpets. Also carpet the lumber pieces that are meant to be placed at the top and bottom of the structure.

Next nail two sisal wrapped lumber poles to the bottom piece (24"x18"x4") on the front edge of the platform leaving some space from both the ends.

Nail the remaining lumber pole at the back of the platform positioning it exactly at the middle.

Firmly place the wooden platform (22"x25"x4") on top of the 3 poles and nail it properly. See that the legs stand firmly and vertically.

Carpet the exterior and interior of the wooden box properly and make it warm. It is going to serve the purpose of your kitty' indoor sanctum.

Use corner brackets and screws to hold the box below the wooden top platform and nail it properly to the lumber poles.

Next measure and cut the Quick Tube at a length of 22". Now cut it further into two halves lengthwise.

Take one of the semicircular halves of the tube and properly glue it with carpets. It is going to function as your kitty's bed.

Next, locate a suitable position and use screws to attach this bed with the cat tree. Use a corner bracket to fix the back half of the bed to the tree. An ideal position to place the bed is a few inches below the carpeted box.

The next task would be to prepare a small play tunnel for kitty. Cut a length of the Quick Tube (18"-19 "). Further hack it into two semicircular halves and carpet these two halves.

Once both the sides of the halves are carpeted, re-join them like before with the help of an adhesive and glue corner brackets to it.

Place this carpeted tube a few inches below the bed. Connect it firmly to the legs of the tree with the help of screws.

Last of all, cover the brackets with cut pieces of carpet and your cat house is ready.

You can either attach the structure to a wall or make it stand alone in a desired place. Check that it is stable enough to withstand a bunch of cats scurrying around. Try adding some fine trinkets (like bells and cat toys) and watch your kitty purr with approval and delight.

Ear Infections in Cats

Unlike the human ear, cats have longer ear canals that move downward and then inward inside the ears. This complex anatomical structure makes ear-cleaning very difficult. Thus, cats are more likely to breed infectious microorganisms inside the ears that give birth to various ear infections and diseases. Sometimes, such problems may take chronic form by perforating ear drums and traveling to the brain. So, proper hygiene and requisite medical therapies are necessary to get rid of ear infections. In these lines, we have detailed about the various symptoms, causes and remedies of ear infections in cats.


More than often, your cat will display various signs that indicate an ear problem. Keep an open eye to the following symptoms

Constant rubbing or pawing of ears and head

Vigorous shaking of the head

Tilting the head to one side

Foul smell near the ears

Inflammation of the ear canal

Discharge from the ears

Irritable behavior or depression


Numerous predisposing factors may contribute to an infected ear in your cat. Understand what causes this problem, by going through the following lines

Allergic reactions to certain food or inhaling certain allergens

Presence of parasites like ear mites (Otodectes cynotis)

Free-living organisms like yeast and bacteria in the body

Presence of tumors inside the ear (like carcinomas and melanomas)

Foreign bodies like plant awns inside the ear

Some ear infections are congenital and hereditarily passed


Depending on the causal factors, treatments may vary. Check out these remedies that can help in reducing various ear problems in cats.

Make sure to regularly clean your cat's ear with a good ear cleaning solution to cure ear infection and prevent recurrence.

Certain antibiotics and antifungals can be administered for treating bacterial and yeast infections in ears.

Corticosteroids are also prescribed, that are either applied topically, or given orally or through injections.

Hormonal replacement or hyposensitization is used for treating ear infections due to hormonal imbalance.

Various medicated ear drops are available to get rid of ear mites. Ask your vet for a suitable product.

As aforesaid, hygiene is the most important factor for preventing ear infections in your pet. Do a routine check of your cat's ears and carefully remove accumulated waste and debris from the ears. In case you notice any signs of ear infections, immediately notify your veterinarian.

Diarrhea in Cats

The passage of frequent squirts of watery stool is known as 'Diarrhea' and it is a very common feline ailment. It cannot be termed as a disease on its own. Actually, it is a symptomatic disorder of various underlying problems in the body. Sometimes, diarrhea may be acute, lasting for a period of 2-3 weeks. Sometimes, the situation gets chronic when it persists for more than 3 weeks. Blood may or may not be present in the stool, and often the stool is yellowish and frothy. Various factors contribute towards such unhealthy bowel movement in cats. Let us understand the various symptoms, causes, preventive measures and useful home remedies for treating the problem of diarrhea in cats.


Liquid Stool

Sudden loss of appetite

Lethargy or Inactivity

Restlessness or Irritation

Frequent thirst (due to loss of body fluids)


Sudden dietary changes

Dietary indiscretion and food allergies

Bacterial infections (like Salmonella and Campylobacter)

Viral infections (like FIV, FeLV, Panleukopenia, Roatvirus)

Protozoal Infections (like Giardia and Cryptosporidium)

Parasitic worms (like whipworms and roundworms)

Internal blockage (due to hairballs or other foreign matters)

Neoplasia (like Lymphoma and Carcinoma)

Hormonal problems (like Hyperthyroidism)

Inflammatory bowel disease

Ingestion of toxic substances

Liver and kidney malfunctions

Diseases like Colitis or Pancreatitis

Preventive Measures

Choose a good brand of commercial food and stick to it. Do not go for substandard packaged or canned food for your cat.

Do not make any abrupt changes in his diet plan. While introducing a new food; begin by adding it in small quantities to the normal food.

Do not provide food like chocolates, raw fish, raw eggs, onions, bones and pork. They are extremely harmful for cats.

Always provide food in a clean and sterilized food bowl. See that you properly clean the bowl after every meal.

Also, ensure that the toxic substances or other harmful products in your home are safely stacked away, out of kitty's reach.

Home Remedies

Avoid giving food and water for at least a day. It will help to cleanse the system and the irritated intestinal tract.

After 24 hr, provide bland homemade food and some amount of water. You can give him some cooked rice and small pieces of chicken.

Give your cat half a teaspoon of plain yoghurt during dinner. It will help to soothe the tummy and balance the digestive system.

Make sure that he is properly hydrated. Avoid dehydration by providing your cat with lots of water and electrolyte fluids.

Do not give milk to drink. It will aggravate the problem. In case he hesitates to drink water, feed him water with a medicine dropper.

If the condition persists for more than 24 hr, take your cat to the veterinarian. He will conduct fecal test and other medical examinations (X-Ray, Intestinal Biopsy, Ultrasound, Urinalysis etc) to determine the root cause of the problem. Prescribed oral medications (antibiotics and antifungal) will easily help to get rid of the trouble. But, if the condition is brought about by internal blockage or obstructions, major surgeries might be the only possible solution.

Cat Vaccinations

Vaccination is crucial when it comes to the health of your newborn feline. It is a process where antigenic materials are administered to generate a complex biological reaction in the body, and make it immune to various pathological diseases and disorders. The proper use of vaccines fosters the health of your kittens by shielding them from various infectious diseases. Different factors are to be taken into consideration before vaccinating cats. Likewise, various complications might also crop up after the process. So, vaccinations should be given under proper medical supervision only. Here are some of the vaccines that your veterinarian might recommend for your kittens/ cats.

Vaccines For A Cat

Rabies Vaccine

Administering doses of this vaccine protects your cat from 'rabies'. Since, humans are also prone to the disease; this vaccine is required by law. Generally a yearly dose of the vaccine is given to kittens, starting from four months. Some states also offer multiple year (mostly three years) rabies vaccinations. The legal requirements of the state should be taken into consideration before you go for either the one or the three year jabs.

FVRCP Vaccine

This is a combination inoculation given on a yearly basis. Here, FVR stands for 'Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis' which is an upper respiratory disorder caused by a feline type1, herpes virus. C stands for 'Calcivirus', which is also an upper respiratory disorder in cats. P stands for 'Panleukopenia' (Feline Distemper); which is communicable feline enteritis (inflammation of the intestines). Beginning at around 8 weeks of age, kittens require three jabs of this vaccine.

FeLV Vaccine

This vaccine guards against 'Feline Leukemia'. It is a chronic and highly communicable disease that affects the immune system and other vital organs of cats, and may even lead to cancer or death in severe cases. It can also be hereditarily passed by infected mothers to their kittens. Generally, two FeLV injections are given three to four weeks apart, beginning at 9-12 weeks. An annual booster every year is administered for continued protection from thereafter.

Cat Mites

Mites that are found on the body of the felids are called as 'Mange'. These parasites settle on the various parts of a felids body right from their ear tunnels to the genital areas. Cats like other felines are prone to mites. Severe scratches done by them in order to get rid of these mites also worsen the problems in the case of cats. They develop damp wounds in their body due to the itching developed through these mites' activities. These mites are communicable and can easily contagion from one animal to other. Some of these mites are even prone to human bodies. Read this article to know more about the Cat mites and methods to get rid of them.

Type of Mites

Ear Mites (Otodectes Cynotis)

Ear Mites are the most common form of mites found in pet animals especially in cats. Though as per its name it seems that it may develop only in ear but it is actually a myth. An ear mite can develop in any parts of the body of cats. These minute creatures thrive on epidermal debris and earwax and generally cause inflammation of the outer ear canal in the cats.

Get Rid Of Ear Mites

Your cat should always be treated for ear mites after a veterinarian doctor has properly examined her sample from her ears under the microscope. He can them suggest you some ear drops or mineral oil to be massaged on your cat's ear to get rid of these mites.

Burrowing Mites

Burrowing mites are relatively less common phenomenon than ear mites. These parasites attack your cat's head and make it callously itchy. They badly affect your ear base also. These mites can lead to hair loss in your pet. Chronic attack of these mites can lead to blood poisoning in your pets also.

Get Rid Of Burrowing Mites

You must consult a veterinary doctor as soon as you can in the case of burrowing mites. Your pet may require an antibiotic treatment for secondary plagues; it is very important to stop their further growth as it may ultimately lead to the death of your pet.

Walking Dandruff (Cheyletiella)

Walking Dandruff is a state of parasite attack in which the scales of your cat's body start moving away from the body. This is a very irksome skin ailment caused by a mite known as 'Cheyletiella'. These skin abrasions happen because these Cheyletiella mites try to crawl under your pet's skin. This disease is also common in rabbits and can also affect human body.

Get Rid Of Walking Dandruff

You must take your cat to a veterinary doctor. Apart from antibiotics and medicines, he may suggest you adding olive oil to her diet. Do not bring any drastic change in your cat's diet and regularly brush her gently to get rid of loose skins and dandruffs.

Selecting Cat Dress

Wings appear when you let your imagination fly. How true!! Now even your pets can have their own wardrobe. Dressing pets is a fad among pet-owners these days. In fact, this upcoming trend has led designers to flaunt their own line of designer pet clothes. And when it comes to cats, cute feline dresses and accessories are a must-grab from the pet stores and designer boutiques. Dressing your cat can be quite simple. But you should see that you dress your cat only for special occasions. Cats don't like being dolled up every other day. Still, you can expect your kitty to wear a beautiful dress and sashay around during her birthday and other festive occasions.

Dress for the Occasion

Variety is the word that describes cats' line of clothing in the market. From colorful tees, fuzzy sweatshirts to floral summer dresses, your cat has a huge option to choose from. See how you can dress up your kitty in sync with the mood of the occasion.

Petite Princess

It is your kitty's birthday and she no doubt deserves to be the cynosure of all eyes. Dress her up in a bright colored Baroness-style ball gown. A cute bow resembling a flower or a small beaded necklace will complete the look. See that the dress is easy to put on and comes off easily too. Use self-sticking fabrics like Velcro instead of buttons and hooks.

Fiery Fiends

Try dressing your kitty as a witch or a devil this Halloween. Dress her up in a brown or black cotton frock that fastens on the back .Add a witch hat with adjustable drawstrings to complement the witch look. You can also bring out the mischievous streak in your cat by dressing her up like a devil in a red-colored polyester dress. A cap with black horns will highlight this little fiend.

Diva and Rockstar

If your cat is accompanying you to a party, dress her up in a short and sequined evening dress with sheer bows or satin flowers and make her feel like a diva. If your companion is male, make him wear a vest with party logos and prints. Try a vest with studs and pictures of rock bands or prints of beer mugs. Tie a bandanna and a studded kitty collar for that ultimate rock star look.

Try these dresses on your kitty and hear her purr in style.

Types Of Cat Collars

Though collars are generally seen as a canine accessory, they are equally imperative for ensuring the safety of your feline companion. Whether for a functional reason or for making a fashion statement, let safety be the vanguard whenever you purchase a collar for your cat. Take into consideration the breed of your cat (shape and size) before you choose a collar for him. See that it neither chokes him nor dangles loosely on his neck. Read this article to take a look at the different types of cat collars available in the market.

Types Of Cat Collars

Buckle Collars

These traditional collars are very easy to wear as they can easily be fastened and unfastened on your cat. They come in materials like nylon and leather and are sometimes studded or adorned with jewels and various embroidery patterns. These collars are suitable for cats that mostly stay indoors.

Break-away Collars

These collars are safer as compared to a buckle collar. Attached with a safety mechanism, these collars don't click to a 'locked' position. If the cat is caught on something, he can easily pull off the collar by exerting some force. This prevents accidental choking. Hence, they are suitable for active and adventurous cats.

Flea Collars

A flea collar generally serves medicinal purposes. It is worn along with a conventional buckle collar. Infused with chemical products like flea-repellants, these collars are used as a type of flea-control. But, be careful while using such a collar in your cat as they might sometimes cause various allergic reactions.

Reflective Collars

These collars are made of reflective materials and come handy for pets during the night. Due to their reflecting ability, these collars prevent accidents and ensure that your pet is safe during the dark. Moreover, they also help you avoid inadvertent stepping on your pet while he is indoors during the night.

Personalized Collars

One of the most important functions of a collar is to display the identification tag of the pet. If your cat doesn't prefer wearing an id tag in his collar, you can use personalized collars instead. Such collars are imprinted with the name of the cat and the owner's phone number, and become very helpful, lest your cat gets lost.

A Tip

Decide on the type of collar that is most suitable for your cat. You can also try tying a bell to your cat's collar to warn garden birds of his approach. Once you provide him with a collar, see your kitty jingle all the way with his new choker.

Boils on Cat

A boil or 'Furuncle' is actually a pocket of pus, filled with bacteria or foreign matter under the skin surface. Cats generally get these localized bacterial skin infections in bite and claw wounds during fights. Even though a bite/wound might not leave any puncture on the skin; but it might lead to the development of painful boils underneath the skin surface. Boils on skin generally starts as a tender lump, and then eventually reddens and gets swollen with 'pus'. Sometimes, the pus might get drained on its own. If not; lancing the boils by a veterinarian becomes necessary. Read to know what causes boils in cats, and how to deal with boils with available home remedies.


Listed below are certain factors that can predispose a cat to boils and other staph infections in the skin.

Lack of proper hygiene.

Thyroid problems in the body.

Reduced immune system.

Persistent constipation.

Exposure to various allergens and irritants.

Stress and other health-related problems.

Medical conditions like 'Diabetes Mellitus'.

Consumption of commercial food high in sugars and chemicals.

Home Remedies

Following are a few simple home remedies that you may easily carry out to cure boils in your cat.

Keep a check on the personal hygiene of the animal. Give him a bath every 10-15 days with a good antibacterial soap.

Never try to squeeze or lance a boil at home. Keep the affected area clean, but refrain from scrubbing or picking it.

Apply warm compresses on the affected area for five minutes after every few hours. It will soften the tissue and help the boils to rupture and drain.

Mix a teaspoon of salt or boric acid to a cup of hot water. Dab it in a washcloth and apply on the inflamed areas.

You may even try adding a few drops of castor or tree tea oil to the water for the poultices. See that they are bearable and do not burn the flesh.

Provide the diseased animal with a well balanced and a nutritious diet and avoid feeding him substandard commercial food.

If the boils are accompanied by a fever, it is better to make the animal undergo a fast for a day. It will help to detoxify the body.

Add 2-3 cloves of garlic to his food everyday. Garlic helps in boosting the immune system and is also a well-known antibiotic.

Add some apple cider vinegar to the drinking water of the animal. It will facilitate the healing process.

If the boils do not heal even after two days, immediately notify your veterinarian. The infection might easily grow and spread, if neglected.

Best Family Cats

Cats can be a great addition to a family. They are sober creatures who are happy to relax in their own cozy corners. They can easily snuggle and adjust in any home, and also spare you from grueling animal tantrums. But adding a new feline to your family demands some effort and commitment from your end. You cannot just go and pick up the first cat that you see in the cat-cage. Before choosing your new family member, it is important that you prepare yourself for a long term commitment with the pet. Moreover, it is pivotal that you understand the habits of your new friend and see that they match up to your own habits, lifestyle and home environment. To solve your pet-picking dilemma, we have provided information about the best breed of family cats in the following lines.


Balinese cats are known for their grace and beauty. Though they have a thick silky coat, they do not require extensive grooming. They come in four exquisite colors; lilac-point, seal-point, chocolate- point and blue- point. They are highly warm and people-oriented, which makes them ideal family cats.


It is believed to be the oldest domestic breed of cats in the world. Available in sleek and soft coats that come in a wide variety of colors and patterns, the Abyssinians are very affectionate and intelligent by nature. They are easy to train and make very good and homely pets.

American Bobtail

With a look that is wild and exotic, these cats are available in all the major colors and patterns. They have mysterious almond-shaped eyes and are available in both long and short coats. They are very exuberant and can be ideal playmates with their well-proportioned musculature.

European Burmese

With a fine bone structure and soft expressive eyes, they are considered to be very graceful. They have a medium body with a short and satiny coat. Cats of this breed are very sociable and fun-loving. They have a strapping body with slender legs and generally prefer being the only pet in the family.

American Shorthair

Suitable if you are looking for an inquisitive and well-behaved cat that can give company to your kids. With a sturdy frame and many color variations, these cats found place in many family portraits of the 1700's. They are extremely easy going and have a life expectancy of about 20 yr with proper nutrition and care.


This is a spotted domestic breed and is generally short-haired. They are available in six different colors and are gregarious, affectionate and very intelligent. They easily adapt to the family environment and can be impish and naughty at times. They are suitable for an outgoing family with children.


Named after Bombay in India (Land of the Black Leopards); these medium-sized cats are jet black in color and are have a sturdy built. They have golden or copper eyes and are known for their agility and intelligence. Cats of this breed are extremely attached to their owners and look out for constant affection.

California Sprangled Cat

These cats look like little leopards with their spotted body and muscular frames. They have prominent cheekbones and well-defined blue eyes. These cats are highly domesticated creatures, though they have a wild look in their appearance. Warm and quick, these cats can fit into the domestic lifestyle very easily.

Egyptian Mau

This breed derives its name from the Egyptian word 'Mau' which means 'Cats'. An attractive breed with a dense spotted coat and large green eyes, they are extremely extroverted and are quick learners. Whenever they are happy and excited, they purr in a soft voice. They have a well-built body with strong legs.


This is a French breed and is named after a famous Spanish wool of the 18th century due to their soft and wooly coat. They are short-haired and come in a bluish-grayish shade. They have a powerfully built body, brawny legs and large orange eyes. They are very quite and intelligent by nature.

Cornish Rex

These elegant-looking cats are available in a large variety of colors, color patterns and color combinations. They are very active and love to participate in games and recreational activities. Because of their intense inclination towards human company, these cats can easily adjust to the family environment.

Devon Rex

This is a short-haired and medium-sized breed with large oval eyes. They have a robust body with a long tapering tail. This breed is actually a mutated version of the Cornish Rex and is also excessively fond of human company. They love sneaking to places that are warm and enjoy sharing your bed and food.

Japanese Bobtail

This is an ancient breed that has a fine coat with no undercoat. They look beautiful with their fine chiseled mouth and high cheekbones. They are very affable and share a strong bond with their owners. They may even reciprocate a verbal conversation with a soft voice. They easily bond with children.

Havana Brown

Considered as protectors from evil-eyes by the Siamese people; cats of this breed have large distinctive ears and long legs. This breed is highly intelligent and quiet. They prefer lazing down in a secluded corner and can be great attention-seekers from their owners.


This is a medium-sized breed with large and sparkling blue eyes. They are available in a variety of colors ranging from fawn to blue. They are warm and gentle and are highly fascinated by water. Generally, cats of this breed love to play indoors or have friendly interaction with their owners.


Cats of this breed have a very short and round body that makes them appear like a cuddlesome ball. The bone structure is very thick. The neck is short and strong. They have vivid blue eyes and a sweeping bushy tail. They are very warm-mannered and playful, and need protection like small children.


Earlier referred to as 'Cherubim', this is a large breed with a powerful body. Cats of this breed have long silky furs and are available in colors like seal, chocolate, blue and lilac. They gel very well with children and other pets in the family, and are very easy to train. They are well known for their love for food.

Now you may go and happily take your pick.

Arthritis in Cats

Though cats are innately endowed with a very athletic body structure, yet they are predisposed to various problems pertaining to bones, due to accidents and everyday abrasion of joints and ligaments. Usually, they are at a high risk of orthopedic disorder in the form of 'Arthritis' (joint inflammation). Arthritic problems may appear in any breed of cats; but generally cats who lead sporty and physically active lives are more prone to arthritis. Let us have a look at the different types of feline arthritis; their symptoms; their causes; and also learn how to effectively deal with them.

Types of Feline Arthritis

Though, arthritis involves joint inflammation, it is a very complex phenomenon and might take various forms. Listed below are two of the most common forms of feline arthritis.

Traumatic Arthritis

Different accidents and sprains may lead to traumatic arthritis in cats. If the cat is injured by a moving vehicle; wounded in a cat fight; or accidentally falls with an awkward position; the sprains might initiate traumatic arthritis.


Dislocations of joints or other fractures may bring about osteoarthritis. Recurrent problems of traumatic arthritis might also surface as osteoarthritis later. The shoulder and elbow bones of old cats are more susceptible to this disorder.


Arthritis is a very painful condition. So, keep a check on your pet's general health and beware of the following indicative symptoms.

Sudden change in behavior (aggressiveness and avoidance)

Decreased energy level or lethargy

Swollen or highly painful joints

Noticeable limping or lameness

Stiffness in the limbs, especially in the mornings

Difficulty in various forms of movement (like sitting or lying down)


Generally, a series of conditions contribute to the development of arthritis in felines. Some of the major factors are mentioned below

Excess body weight or obesity

Ageing or long term overuse

Bone or cartilage problems

Genetically transferred (in certain cases)

Severe stress or high level of activities

Traumatic injuries like fractures and sprains

How to Treat Arthritis in Cats

Depending on the severity of the condition and the site of the problem, different home remedies are available to cure arthritis. Detailed below are a few of them.

Provide your cat with a grain free and a low carbohydrate diet.

Include fish oil and Vitamin E supplementation in his diet.

Maintain a good exercise routine for your cat.

Be extra vigilant when it comes to your pet's weight.

Provide him a comfortable sleeping area.

Administer mild anti-inflammatory drugs when necessary.

Provide supplementation of glucosamine/ chondroiton.

Herbal medication (with prior consultation of a veterinarian).

In case, there is no improvement in your cat's health, seek proper medical guidance. Sometimes, acupuncture therapies given by a vet might alleviate the problem. In severe cases, surgical operations may be required.

Aggressive Cat Behavior

If you have a cat who is an irresistible darling, don't presuppose that he is the safest thing to cuddle and play with the whole day. Sometimes he might give you that jolt by displaying sudden bouts of violent behavior. Aggression is nothing unnatural when it comes to cats. From build-up sexual tension to overexcitement, normally every stimulating emotion in a cat is given vent through the display of aggressive behavior. Thus, it is necessary to domesticate your feline cohort and make him adequately socialized and mellowed. Let us find out what exactly leads to aggressive behavior in cats and how to deal with such a behavioral problem.

Forms of Aggressive Behavior in Cats

Aggressive behavior in a cat may take any of the following forms

Predatory Aggression

Always remember that your kitty is born with an innate inclination towards hunting. You might provide him with a can of tuna everyday, but at heart he is still a hunter who needs to sharpen his hunting skills. He instinctively pounces and attacks. It is often an extension of his playful behavior. He likes to act out the part of a predator and loves giving playful bites. Beware!

Anger Aggression

Sometimes negative emotions like fear might make your cat aggressive. If your cat doesn't like being picked, stroked or touched, he might try to fend you off by scratching or biting when you approach him. When he notices that his aggressive behavior helps to deter unwanted pats and strokes, he will show persistent display of such volatile behavior.

Protective Aggression

This form of aggressive behavior is seen in the case of a mother cat. She might get furious and attack when someone tries to pat or play with her kittens. The protective motherly instinct leads her to safeguard her puppies from threats and dangers. Thus, she might see any unknown person or animal as a potential threat to her babies and might get belligerent when you approach them.

Fear Aggression

Whenever your cat is scared of a certain object/ idea/ or a person, he might take recourse to aggression to shield his actual feelings. Cats are generally very apprehensive about befriending strangers, and might get extremely hostile towards them. Similarly they might also burst out when they notice the veterinarian, as those pricks and jabs are no doubt painful.

Territorial Aggression

We all have personal spaces that we don't like being intruded. Similar is the case with cats. This form of aggression is noticeable when a cat tries to protect his own domain or territory from trespassers. The animal might get violent if he believes someone/ something is toeing this personal line. Proper socialization is necessary to acquaint a cat with people and other animals in such cases.


Overexcitement in cats takes the form of aggressive behavior. Sometimes excessive patting and cuddling might irritate a cat and lead to sudden explosive behavior. A cat might also display aggression when he is having too much fun during pleasurable experiences. Sexual stimulation in cats also gets manifested through aggressive behavioral patterns.

Health Problems

Sometimes a cat gets violent when he is not keeping a good health. He might get furious if you unintentionally pat him in painful areas. Other internal medical problems might also surface up in the form of violent behavior in your cat. When you notice such an abnormal display of behavior, it is always better to consult a veterinarian. Never presume that a cat gets rambunctious just to have fun.

Remedies of Aggressive Behavior in Cats

Teach your kitty not to bite or scratch during kitten hood. Play aggression can be easily curbed, if a kitten receives early training on apposite behavioral outlines.

Adequately socialize him with people and also other animals. Never expect your kitty to purr welcomingly if he notices a sudden raucous crowd entering the house.

Keep a note of all the signals that precede aggressive behavior in a cat, like tensing of the body or excessive flickering of the tail. Immediately withdraw if the cat displays such a body language while patting or playing.

If your cat displays these pre-aggression syndromes or gets aggressive during play, immediately avoid him. This way you can make him understand that his behavior is inappropriate for playful indulgence.

Trim your cat's nails as he is prone to clawing. It is their way of marking a territory. So, it is always better to provide him an object like a ragged doll where he can scratch and paw as much as he likes.

If you bring a new pet home, it is always better to confine both the animals in different rooms for a couple of days. This helps proper breaking of the ice and your cat won't feel threatened when he finally meets the new pet.

If you are still unable to undergo behavioral modification in your cat, it is better to take the help of a veterinarian. Never try to inject or administer drugs to your pet, and get rid of aggression without proper medical supervision.

Traveling With Cat

Traveling with your pets is not easy. As they do not speak your language, it is very difficult to understand their needs and make them understand your instructions. In case you are traveling with your cat, your task becomes more difficult as cats have a phobia from traveling. They do not sit in a corner after getting terrified; in fact they make a lot of hue and cry, so handling them in a journey could be really difficult. Therefore you need to do a lot of preparations before you take your dear pussy cat on a journey. Here are some handy tips that would be useful for you…

Before you take her to any journey, arrange a crate or fabric containment to carry your cat. Your cat will feel secure and sheltered in these containers.

If you are leaving for a long trip and your cat is very reluctant and is crying and shrieking too much, it is better to always better to consult a veterinarian. You must also run a trial run to judge your cat's behavior in long run. If your cat is ultra-reluctant, the best way would be to ask the veterinarian to give her tranquilizers.

Make sure you tag your cat with an identity card or other means of identification to assure her safety. Do not also let her loose, she might run away.

Generally cats suffer from motion sickness, if it is the case with you cat, you may have to give her the training of traveling. You will have to customize her of traveling which will help her get desensitization from this traveling phobia. You can give her gradual training by making her sit in the car first of all with the engine off, then with the engine on, after she gets used to it, take her on short trips, you can finally take her on a cross country trip.

Make sure your cat has taken a meal three hour before you set off on any journey. After that you must feed your nauseous cat with anti-motion sickness medications to avoid hassle during the journey.

If you are traveling alone with your cat, always buckle her up with the seat belt to avoid any unpleasant incident.

Make sure that your cat does not have nay access to the driver side floor near the brake and gas pedals. Also make sure that your car's dashboard must be out of her bounds for safety sake.

If you are planning to stay overnight in some hotel or lounge make sure there is an arrangement for your pet. You must bring your cat's food and water from the home itself.

Do not leave your cat alone in a locked car.

Cat Training Tips

You have a cat in your home. You love her, adore her but are fed up of several of her irritating activities. She litters, pees here and there - on the costly carpet, on bed sheet or in the kitchen. She scratches your furniture, flings from curtain or electric cord. You are wondering what to do of this naughty creature. In a rare and radical case you may be thinking of rearing a dog to teach little pussy a lesson. Well, take a pause. We are giving you some simple tips regarding basic training of your cat. This includes toilet/potty/litter box training.

First of all there are two basic rules that are to be followed.

Don't reprimand or punish your cat for any unwanted behavior. This may make your cat fearful of you or else the cat will continue with the unwanted behavior in your absence.

Reward your cat for the desired behavior. It will act as a positive reinforcement.

Excessive Meowing

Meowing is an acquired behavior of the cat. Cats have been trained to do so. Whenever pussy wants food, attention or affection, she meows. Over a period of time this becomes a self-reinforcing habit and later on cats meow just for the fun of it. The situation gets worsened when the cat is lonely or bored.

The first step in breaking this habit is to exercise and play daily with your cat. There are so many cat toys available in the market. You can choose anyone of them. But you have to really get involved in the game. If left on her own cat will soon get bored of the game.

Don't pay attention to the pussy and give her anything when she is meowing. In fact ignore her completely whenever she does so. Fulfill her needs when she is quiet. This will instill in her mind the desired behavior that is expected of her.

Nocturnal Activities

By nature cat is a nocturnal animal. Given a choice she will sleep whole day and begin her activities late in the evening or night. If you find this behavior annoying, you have to change the biological clock of cat as per your needs.

Firstly, don't reward cat in anyway - by playing with her or feeding her - whenever she wakes you in the night.

Don't let your cat doze off in the day. Keep her active all day along and feed her late in the evening/early night. By following this schedule you will deprive your cat of sleep in the day and hence she will catch up with her sleep in the night. In about 2 weeks time her biological clock will match yours.

Litter Box Training

It's important to make sure that you train the cat correctly in the first place. As a kitten, every time that she looks like she's about to crouch or she starts sniffing near a corner (classic signs of oncoming urination or defecation), pick her up and put her in the litter box. Also, first thing in the morning, put your kitten in the litter box. Kittens learn extremely quickly.

The most important reason why a cat stops using litter box is that the litter box may not be clean. Make sure that you clean the litter box every day, and completely change all the litter and wash the box out at least once a week. That will help encourage your cat.

Unless a cat is not fully trained in the toilet habits, don't let her a free run of your house. Keep her confined to a small area.

Cats never shit where they eat, so put her food bowl near wherever she had the accident.

Don't punish a cat after she had made the mistake. That will make the cat fearful of you. Scolding and then taking the cat to litter box after she has eliminated will make her to associate litter box with punishment.

Reward your cat for eliminating in the litter box. In order to do so you must be present there at the time when she eliminates. You need to have an idea when the cat urinates or defecates. Most cats eliminate after waking, eating and exercise. To help predict the toilet behavior of the cat feed her at regular times. Praise her whenever she litters in litter box.

Scratching Furniture/Climbing Curtains

Cats love to scratch furniture. To prevent them from doing so place double-sided tape or masking tape left sticky side up at strategic places on the furniture. Cats don't exactly relish having an object cling to their sensitive feet. Bring them a scratching post to satisfy their scratching instincts.

Similarly cats love to climb up curtains. Put a soda can or similar thing at the top so that it falls when the cat tries to climb up the curtain.